Engraving of President Martin van Buren
Steel engraving of Martin van Buren, 8th president of the United States, from a publication. Below the engraving is the depiction of the "Destruction of the Caroline", an American steamboat provided by American sympathizers to rebel Canadian forces from Upper Canada determined to overthrow the royalist Canadian government. The US remained neutral as the Canadian forces entered American territory, captured the ship, set it on fire and sent it over Niagara Falls. The doctrine of international 'preventive self-defense' was established. The signature of Martin van Buren is printed. Some foxing.